From: The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples/Filipinos/Anita Beltran Chen
A brief account of Philippine history, geography, religion, language, political parties, and major industries is found in W.F. Choinski, “The Philippines,” in Asian Handbook, edited by G. Wint (Don Mills, Ont., 1966), 351–62. A history of the Philippines that is more interpretive than narrative is O.D. Corpuz, The Philippines (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965). For a comprehensive sociological account of Filipino culture and social institutions, the general reader may turn to Isabel S. Panopio, Felicidad V. Cordero-MacDonald, and Adelisa A. Raymundo, General Sociology: Focus on the Philippines, 3rd ed. (Quezon City, Philippines, 1994).
A commentary on Filipino immigrants in North America is offered in Rodel J. Ramos, In Search of a Future: The Struggle of Immigrants (Scarborough, Ont., 1994). The first nation-wide study of Filipino Canadians was undertaken by Eleanor M. Laquian in A Study of Filipino Immigration to Canada 1962–1972 (Toronto, 1973), which provides an interesting insight into the motives for migration, the problems and conflicts encountered, and adjustments made to jobs and the new environment. Another account of Filipino Canadians is by T. Anden, “Filipinos in Canada,” Rikka, vol.3 (1976). A more recent overview of Filipino immigrants in Canada is Marcial Q. Aranas, The Dynamics of Filipino Immigrants in Canada (Edmonton, 1983), the first part of which analyses the origin and background of Filipino Canadians while the second provides a descriptive account of Filipino Canadians to the early 1980s.
The settlement of Filipinos in various regions of Canada has been studied in a number of contexts. Ruben J. Cusipag and Maria Corazon Buenafe, Portrait of Filipino Canadians in Ontario, 1960–1990 (Ontario, 1993), focuses mainly on Ontario and provides a detailed account of early Filipino settlement in cities like Windsor, Ottawa, and Metropolitan Toronto. Anita Beltran Chen, “Kinship System and Chain Migration: Filipinos in Thunder Bay,” in Asian Canadians: Regional Perspectives, edited by Victor Ujimoto and Gordon Hirabayashi (Halifax, N.S., 1981), 185–206, is useful for its study of Filipinos in another Ontario community, as is her “Kinship and Internal Migration: Filipinos in Thunder Bay,” in The Southeast Asian Environment, edited by Douglas K. Webster (Ottawa, 1983), 191–204. The growth of the Filipino community in Toronto is discussed by Rosalina Bustamante in “Filipino Canadians: A Growing Community in a Fast-Developing City,” Polyphony: The Bulletin of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario, vol.6, no.1 (1984), 168–171. Those interested in traditional Filipino culture can refer to the same author’s “Filipino Traditions in Music, Dance and Drama,” Polyphony, vol.5, no.2 (1983), 99-103.
An M.A. thesis by Cleto Buduhan, “An Urban Village: The Effects of Migration on the Filipino Garment Workers in a Canadian City” (University of Manitoba, 1972), analyses Filipino factory workers and their experiences and adjustments in Winnipeg. This research was extended by the same author in Two Filipino Immigrant Communities: A Comparative Study of Garment Workers in Winnipeg and Professionals in Vancouver (Honolulu, 1974), which describes the experiences of Filipino immigrants in two major cities in Canada that have relatively large Filipino communities.
Two other community-based studies should be noted. Pedro Guidote et al., contributed an empirical study, “The Filipinos in Montreal,” in Asian Canadians and Multiculturalism, edited by K. Victor Ujimoto and Gordon Hirabayashi (Montreal, 1980), 140–68; and Romulo F. Magsino, Tropical Islanders in the Atlantic: A Study of Filipino Experiences in Newfoundland (St John’s, 1982), provides an illuminating account of reasons for immigration to Canada and of adaptation in Newfoundland.
A comprehensive and annotated bibliography on the Filipino immigrant community in Canada and the United States is David H. Stymeist, Lilia Salazar, and Graham Spafford, A Selected Annotated Bibliography on the Filipino Immigrant Community in Canada and the United States (Winnipeg, 1989). This bibliography includes references to M.A. and Ph.D. theses on the Filipino experience in North America.