Further Reading

From: The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples/Salvadoreans/Lisa Kowalchuk

An excellent overview of the social, economic, and political conditions in El Salvador during the 1980s can be found in Tom Barry, El Salvador: A Country Guide (Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1990). Liisa North, Bitter Grounds: Roots of Revolt in El Salvador (Toronto, 1981), and James Dunkerly, The Long War: Dictatorship and Revolution in El Salvador (London, 1982), both trace the evolution of El Salvador’s exclusionary political system and distorted-development model from the late nineteenth century to the outbreak of civil war.

Although many Canadians – among them academics and writers – have been actively concerned for the welfare of the people of El Salvador, little has been written about the lives of Salvadoreans in Canada. Gertrud Neuwirth, The Settlement of Salvadorean Refugees in Ottawa and Toronto (Ottawa, 1989), touches on many fundamental aspects of Salvadoreans’ adaptation to Canadian society. The small number of people Neuwirth surveyed, however, limits the utility of her findings. Charles D. Smith, “Trials and Errors: The Experience of Central American Refugees in Montreal,” Refuge, vol.5, no.4 (1986), 10–11, presents similar data for a somewhat larger sample of Salvadorean immigrants surveyed in Montreal in 1983 and 1984. Examining the effect of Canadian immigration policy on the admission of Salvadoreans to Canada are Alan Simmons, “Latin American Migration to Canada: New Linkages in the Hemispheric Migration and Refugee Flow System,” International Journal, vol.48, no.2 (1993), 282–309; Tanya Basok and Alan Simmons, “A Review of the Politics of Canadian Refugee Selection,” in Vaughan Robinson, ed., The International Refugee Crisis: British and Canadian Responses (London, 1993), 132–57; and Phil Ryan, Compassion or Expediency: The Overseas Selection of Central American Refugees (Toronto, 1988).