Further Reading

From: The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples/Trinidadians/Subhas Ramcharan

For histories of Trinidad and Tobago, readers might consult E. Williams, History of the Peoples of Trinidad and Tobago (Port of Spain, 1962); S. MacDonald, Trinidad and Tobago: Democracy and Development in the Caribbean (New York, 1986); and F. Augier, The Making of the West Indies (London, 1961). Descriptive analysis of the major racial groups in Trinidad are provided in Kevin A. Yelvington, ed., Trinidad Ethnicity (Knoxville, Tenn., 1993); M. Klass, East Indians in Trinidad (New York, 1961); and J. LaGuerre, ed., Calcutta to Caroni (Port of Spain, 1974).

For an analysis of the history and sociology of Trinidadians in Canada, some of the best sources are James Walker, The West Indians in Canada (Ottawa, 1984); W. Anderson, Caribbean Immigrants: A Socio-Demographic Profile (Toronto, 1990); Subhas Ramcharan, Racism: Non-Whites in Canada (Toronto, 1982); R. Chodos, The Caribbean Connection (Toronto, 1977); and Robin Winks The Blacks in Canada (Montreal, 1971).

In terms of the social, economic, and cultural organization of Trinidadians, the earliest study was Subhas Ramcharan, The Adaptation of West Indians in Canada (Toronto, 1974). Other works include Wilson Head, The Black Presence in the Canadian Mosaic (Toronto, 1975); Francis Henry, The Colour of Democracy (Toronto, 1994); and idem., The Caribbean Diaspora in Toronto (Toronto, 1994). Clifford Jansen and Anthony Richmond, Immigrant Settlement and Integration in Canada (Toronto, 1990), and Anthony Richmond, Caribbean Immigrants (Ottawa, 1989), provide important analyses of social and economic adaptation issues. Anthony Richmond and A. Mendoza, “Education and Qualifications of Caribbean Migrants and their Children,” in R. Palmer, ed., In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean (New York, 1990), provide an in-depth analysis of the educational issues confronting the Trinidadian community. The role and status of Indo-Trinidadians in Canada are discussed in Milton Israel, In the Further Soil. A Social History of Indo-Canadians in Ontario (Toronto, 1994); F. Birbalsingh, Indenture and Exile (Toronto, 1989); and G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, Overseas Indians. A Study in Adaptation (New Delhi, 1983).

Weekly newspapers provide much information about the Trinidadian community. Throughout the 1970s and continuing until 1985, the black and West Indian community newspaper Contrast was the major source of information for news and events about the Trinidadian community in Toronto and Canada, as well as providing news about events in the homeland. Since the late 1980s Caribbean Camera, Pride, and Share have recorded Trinidadian community and cultural events in Toronto. The newspaper Indo-Caribbean World (Toronto) began is a major source of social and cultural information for Trinidadians of South Asian background in Canada. As well, the journal Indo-Caribbean Review (Toronto) provides a multidisciplinary analysis of Indo-Trinidadian issues in Canada.

As a source of information on the socio-demographic profile of the Trinidadian population in Canada, Statistics Canada’s Immigration Statistics (Ottawa, 1994) is invaluable. It provides an excellent demographic profile of the migrant on arrival, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the socio-economic status of the group in Canada.